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Skillz December 2010 Winning Entry - Technical

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don

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Post Wed Jan 26, 2011 12:59 am

Skillz December 2010 Winning Entry - Technical

Winning Technical Entry for The Nightmare Before Charlie Brown's Christmas submitted by Ron Bowes et al (Forgive copy and paste formatting results):


+---------------------------------------------------------+
|    The Nightmare Before Charlie Brown's Christmas |
+---------------------------------------------------------+
Submission by:
- Ron Bowes
- Mak Kolybabi
- Andrew Orr
- Russ Tait Milne
of SkullSpace Winnipeg (http://skullspace.ca)


+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 1) What was the purpose of Jack's commands shown above?                    |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
* dhclient
  Jack used dhclient to obtain an ip address from the network. Interestingly,
  the DHCP offer and acknowledgements are seen at 1:44:50 UTC, but the
  request, which should have been broadcast at approximately the same time,
  isn't present. One second after receiving the DHCP address, the router at
  10.10.10.1 sends a single ping to Jack's newly obtained address, which he
  responds to. That's also unusual behaviour.

* ifconfig
  Jack runs ifconfig for one of two reasons:
  1) To determine the subnet mask for the network he connected to. Since Jack
    knows that the main VoIP server is somewhere on the same subnet as he
    plugged into, thanks to the contract he found, he might want to find the
    subnet mask to determine exactly which hosts to scan. In this case, since
    the subnet mask is 255.255.255.0, he'll scan the full class c address
    space.
  2) Jack may also run ifconfig to check what his MAC address is
    (00:50:56:10:10:55). If this is the case, then it's the first evidence
    we have that Jack is planning on performing an ARP poisoning attack.

* msfconsole
  Run Metasploit console.

* use auxiliary/scanner/sip/options
  Use the auxiliary module called "scanner/sip/options", which will attempt
  connections to all hosts on port 5060 with an OPTIONS request.

* set RHOSTS 10.10.10.1-254
  Jack wants to scan the subnet that he's connected to, since he knows that's
  where the VoIP server is located.

* run
  Run the SIP scan. He discovers that one server, 10.10.10.77, is running
  SIP, and that it's Asterisk PBX 1.6.2.11.

* use auxiliary/scanner/sip/enumerator
  Next, use the auxiliary module scanner/sip/enumerator, which scans a SIP
  server for numeric username/extensions using OPTIONS/REGISTER commands.

* set RHOSTS 10.10.10.77
  Jack now knows exactly which server he's attacking

* set MINEXT 1000
* set MAXEXT 1100
  Jack is only interested in common extensions - 1000 to 1100. This may be a
  guess on his part, or be based on a range implied by something written or
  displayed on Lucy's phone.

* run
  Perform the enumeration. Based on the server's logs, this happens at
  1:45:10 UTC and takes less than a second.

* exit
  Leave Metasploit console.


+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 2) What was Jack's big plan?                                              |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
From a high level, Jack discovered that Charlie Brown and the gang were
missing the point of Christmas - senseless commercialism. So, being the good
guy that he is, he decided to help them realize that they weren't acting like
good Americans, and therefore were helping the terrorists.

To do this, he needed to do two things:
1) To send a message to Lucy, pretending to be their ruler, Charlie Brown,
  telling her what Christmas was really about.
2) Ensure that Charlie Brown didn't show up and ruin the charade.

To make this happen, Jack had to take a number of actions:
* Find the SIP server, which he uses Metasploit for.
* Bruteforce an account on the SIP server (he gained access to 1005 at
  approximately 1:46:16 UTC, according to the server logs).
* Use ARP spoofing to monitor RTP traffic on the switched network until Lucy
  calls Charlie Brown (the ARP spoofing starts at 1:46:35 UTC, the call
  happens at 1:47:19 UTC).
* After the call is established, monitor it until just the right time, then
  inject a message to Charlie Brown telling him to stay home because nobody
  likes him (the injection happened at 1:48:05 UTC). It's odd that he didn't
  inject a message to Lucy at the same time, but that may indicate a
  limitation of the tool that Jack's using.
* Wait until Lucy tries to call Charlie again, and redirect her to the
  extension that Jack has previously gained access to (she calls Charlie back
  at 1:49:08 UTC).


+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 3) What tools and techniques could Jack have used to implement the whole  |
|    attack, particularly the ability to listen to conversations in real    |
|    time, and to inject his message with precision? Please be specific and  |
|    chronological.                                                          |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
Obviously, he used Metasploit to find the VoIP server, and we already know
the commands he used for that. The other tools he may have used are:

* SIP Bruteforcing
  It is difficult to determine which tool was used for SIP bruteforcing,
  since we have only logs and not packet captures from the Asterisk server.
  However, the most obvious tool for any bruteforcing is thc-hydra.

  Each account had 106 guesses performed against it. Since thc-hydra can try
  the blank password and the username as the password first, that means that
  the dictionary contains either 104, 105, or 106 passwords. Since no
  dictionary I've ever seen is that small, and Jack was likely in a hurry, it
  is likely that he generated his own dictionary that's a subset of a larger
  one.

  There are two likely dictionaries that Jack may have used to generate his
  list:
  * Metasploit's "data/wordlists/unix_passwords.txt" list, since we know
    that Metasploit was installed and handy.
  * John the Ripper's password.lst, since most security folks have john
    installed and it's probably the best list.

  The password for 1005 was guessed on the 20th try, according to the log. That
  means that the 18th, 19th, or 20th password in the list was the key. That
  gives us:
  * Metasploit: ashley, qwerty, 111111
  * John: summer, internet, service

  Since 111111 makes sense for a password on a phone, my guess would be that
  Jack used hydra with the following command:
  $ seq 1000 1005 > ./usernames.txt
  $ head -n106 /pentest/exploit/framework3/data/wordlists/unix_passwords.txt \
    > ./passwords.txt
  $ hydra -L ./usernames.txt -P ./passwords.txt -f -v 10.10.10.77 sip

  That series of commands would generate the exact traffic that we see -
  guessing usernames between 1000 and 1005, performing 106 guesses per host,
  and stopping after the first valid combination is found (1005:111111).

* ARP poisoning
  At 1:46:35, an ARP poisoning attack starts. Every 2 seconds, an unsolicited
  ARP response is seen. This makes it possible to monitor and inject into
  VoIP calls.

  There are many tools that can be used for ARP poisoning. The first one that
  comes to mind is Ettercap, but since that may be backdoored we assume that
  Jack is smart enough to avoid it. Also, Ettercap's traffic doesn't match
  what is seen in the packet log.

  The ARP poisoning messages occur every 2 seconds until the end of the packet
  capture. At 1:25:06 UTC, Jack sends an ARP request for the router's address.
  A tool that exhibits identical behaviour to this is arpspoof, from the
  dsniff project. arpspoof would have been run as follows:
  # arpspoof -t 10.10.10.77 10.10.10.1

* VoIP sniffing
  At 1:47:19, Lucy, at the Theatre, calls Charlie Brown. Because Jack was
  able to inject a message at the right moment (well, 10 seconds after the
  right moment), we can deduce that he was either listening in real time,
  or very nearly real time. We found several tools that could monitor and
  replay VoIP calls after the fact, but very few that could play them in
  real time.

  ucsniff, a tool written by Viper Labs, can monitor SIP/RTP traffic for voice
  (and video!) in realtime. The commandline we used for this is the following:
  # ucsniff -G

  which opens up the GUI version. After beginning monitoring, the calls
  can be monitored in real time.

* VoIP injection
  At 1:48:05 UTC, Jack injects a message to Charlie Brown. We found a number
  of tools that could inject pre-recorded messages, but only a couple that
  actually worked. Since Jack doesn't mention any details of the conversation
  in his message, it's safe to assume that the message is pre-recorded.

  The best (working) tool we found was RTP InsertSound v3.0, from Hacking VoIP
  Exposed (David Endler & Mark Collier). It would be run with the following
  commandline:
  # rtpinsertsound -b 10.11.11.22 ./messagetocharlie.wav

  This will wait for VoIP traffic going to 10.11.11.22, which we know is
  Charlie's address. When it detects the traffic, it will ask Jack to press
  'enter' at the right moment. Jack continues listening to the call and,
  when the time is right (1:48:05 UTC), he inserts the message.

* VoIP redirection
  At 1:49:08 UTC, Lucy at the Theatre attempts to call Charlie. Jack responds
  with 301 Moved Permanently, telling her to call 1005 instead (the number
  Jack had bruteforced earlier). We found a tool called redirectpoison,
  from Hacking VoIP Exposed, that performs this attack. The command that Jack
  would have used is:
  # redirectpoison <interface> 10.11.11.33 5060 '<sip:1005@10.10.10.77>'

  Which would redirect any calls originating from Lucy at the Theatre
  (10.11.11.33) to the extension that Jack had cracked, 1005.

* VoIP calling
  At 1:49:08 UTC, Lucy calls Jack at 1005. Since Jack had previously
  determined the password for that account, he doesn't need any special tools
  to take calls. Any VoIP client will do what he needs.


+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 4) How could Linus have defended the infrastructure against Jack's        |
|    tactics?                                                                |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
* Better passwords
  It took Jack 20 attempts to bruteforce the password for extension 1005. This
  indicates that the password was far too simple. Linus should have implemented
  a password complexity policy, but the fact that it has to interface with the
  phones might make that unreasonable, and other alternatives might be
  investigated like two-factor authentication or VPNs.

* Two-factor authentication
  Having a token with a changing password on it would have made this attack far
  more difficult for Jack. Of course, with Lucy's track record, she probably
  would have left her token on the desk, making the attack once again possible,
  although more difficult, since he would only have been able to use Lucy's
  account and not 1005.

  Additionally, using certificates for authenticating the phones would have
  made Jack's password-guessing attack almost impossible.

* Account lockout
  If accounts were locked out after a certain number of login attempts, and
  that number was less than 20, Jack would not have been able to bruteforce the
  login for extension 1005.

* Login delays
  If there was a delay between login attempts, Jack's attack would have taken
  longer, giving Linus more time to respond.

* Intrusion Prevention
  Since Linus has Snort installed on the VoIP server, and the Snort
  installation detected a likely attack, having Snort actively block the attack
  would have prevented Jack from performing an obvious password-guessing
  attack.

* Isolated server
  A large part of this attack was possible due to Lucy's phone being on the
  same subnet as the Asterisk server. Even if all of the above changes were
  made to the password authentication, Jack still could have pulled off the
  entire attack (although in a somewhat more complicated fashion).

* Protection from ARP spoofing
  Since Linus knew that putting Lucy's phone on the same network as the VoIP
  server was a risk, he could have lowered the risk by ensuring that the router
  had a static ARP entry for the VoIP server.

* 802.1X
  Requiring devices to authenticate to the switch before opening a port would
  have prevented Jack from accessing the network at all. This is assuming that
  Jack could not simply disconnect and reconnect Lucy's phone and record the
  traffic.

* Secure SIP and SRTP
  By using encryption on the SIP/RTP traffic, Jack wouldn't have been able to
  listen in, inject messages, and redirect phonecalls.

* Using SIP clients with REINVITE
  By using REINVITE, the last SIP call between Lucy (at the Theatre) and
  Charlie would have happened directly, without being routed through the main
  SIP server. That would prevent Jack from hijacking it.


+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
| 5) How can Linus set things right?                                        |
+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
I'm not 100% sure on what kind of answer is expected on this question, so I'm
going to have some fun with creative writing. Enjoy!

Thanks to Linus's mistakes, and Jack's ambitions, there are a number of
problems in Charlie Brown's world that have to be resolved.

First, the children almost missed the school play in order to buy more presents
and spread commercialism. Although the story doesn't specifically say this
happens, we know that the children will listen to their ruler, Charlie Brown,
and do what he says. In normal cartoon fashion, Linus would scramble down to
the Walmart, find the kids, and bring them back just in time for the play to
start. The curtain would rise, and nobody would be on stage. The parents would
be whispering to each other with their usual trombone voices. Then, at the last
minute, the first child would come on stage and Christmas would be saved!

Second, the children need to get rid of Jack Skellington. The most obvious way
to do that would be to call upon the Great Pumpkin, who is known to be The Great
Protector of Charlie Brown's world.

Linus, the one who knows the truth about the Great Pumpkin would have to summon
him. I'm not sure what the ritual entails, but I suspect it's blood sacrifice.
There is definitely more to it than waiting in a field.

Anyway, the Great Pumpkin, knowing that the children are in danger, would show
up and have a climactic fight with Jack Skellington. I'm picturing the battle
at the end of The Matrix, where the giant pumpkin jumps inside Jack Skellington
and makes him explode.

And finally, Linus has to resolve the problems caused for Charlie Brown.
Charlie Brown is known to have low self confidence coupled with high
self hatred, and the combination of that and Jack Skellington's insult may have
been enough to push Charlie Brown over the edge.

I imagine Charlie Brown climbing to the top of the highest building in the town
and standing at the edge. Linus would burst out the door and yell for him to
STOP! Charlie, sobbing, would go over all the horrible things that have
happened to him, and Linus would be forced to try and talk him out of doing
something horrible.

Finally, Charlie would remember Lucy and the football, close his eyes, and
jump. But, like everything else, Charlie would screw it up and end up landing
on an awning which, according to the Mythbusters and Indiana Jones, could
potentially save somebody from falling to their death.

So Charlie Brown would be saved, Skellington would be defeated, and everybody
would rejoice!



Congrats,
Don
CISSP, MCSE, CSTA, Security+ SME
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alucian

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Post Wed Jan 26, 2011 11:58 am

Re: Skillz December 2010 Winning Entry - Technical

Congrats Ron!

I had the pleasure to meet him at BSides Ottawa, and he really is a smart guy!
CISSP ISSAP, CISM/A, GWAPT, GCIH, GREM, GMOB, OSWP

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